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Platforms vs. PhDs: How tech giants court and crush the people who study them from NYU and Facebook



NYU and Facebook nyu ad observerlapowskyprotocol

Platforms vs. PhDs, The increasingly tense relationship between tech businesses and academia is revealed by a legal dispute between researchers from NYU and Facebook.
I realised I had a small role to play in the panic that Laura Edelson was experiencing.

During one of many panicked phone calls this week, Edelson said to me, “If this is real, this is my nightmare.”

I had gotten in touch with Edelson, a Ph.D. candidate at the Tandon School of Engineering at New York University, to question her about something NYU and Facebook had told me regarding the reasons behind the company’s recent serving of Edelson and her colleagues with a widely reported cease-and-desist notice. Ad Observer, a browser extension that gathers information on the Facebook users that political marketers are focusing on, was co-created by Edelson. Facebook informed me that one of the reasons it was asking Edelson to close down Ad Observer was that it had broken its own rules by collecting data from users who had never given their approval to do so. Facebook said that the Ad Observer team was also making the data available for download by anyone.

Edelson was surprised because she had worked hard as a cybersecurity researcher to keep sensitive data out of her data set. To her knowledge, the only data Ad Observer gathered and published came from users who willingly provided both the substance of the political ads they saw on Facebook and the reasons they had been targeted with those ads after installing the browser extension.

Even though she fiercely refuted Facebook’s allegations, Edelson’s palms trembled at the thought that someone else’s sensitive information might be hiding in Edelson’s data. She immediately disabled everyone else’s access to download the data while she and her team completed a last-minute privacy audit.

However, Edelson’s fear turned out to be unfounded. NYU and Facebook wasn’t referring to private user accounts when it claimed that Ad Observer was gathering information from users without their consent. It was referring to the accounts of advertisers, which included the names, profile photographs, and contents of publicly accessible Pages that run political advertisements.

Edelson laughed and sighed deeply when I told her this knowledge. Of course she was gathering information from advertising. The essence of Ad Observer is around that data, which is already available to the public on Facebook. The fundamental tenet of this is that the public needs to know who is attempting to sway their vote and the political discourse, she said. That is essentially the project’s goal.

However, Facebook views advertisers as users, and significant ones at that. It is still against Facebook policy to scrape advertiser data, even data that Facebook makes available, and publish it without the advertiser’s permission. After all, only Facebook has the authority to create those regulations.

The fundamental tenet of this is that the public needs to know who is attempting to sway their vote and the political discourse. That’s sort of the project’s purpose.

One of the most extreme examples of the increasingly tense relationship between platforms and the people who examine them is Facebook’s crackdown on Ad Observer, which is still ongoing. Internet platforms have reached out to the research community in recent years as Silicon Valley has come under increasing scrutiny. As a result, formerly inaccessible data sets are now available for academics to employ in their studies on the social effects of tech platforms. One company, Twitter, just introduced a free API that enables pre-approved academics to access the complete archive of tweets. In the meantime, Facebook is collaborating with a group of over a dozen scholars to examine the influence of the platform on the 2020 election and has made a vast amount of Facebook data accessible to researchers through its Facebook Open Research and Transparency project.

But as this work advances, tech corporations are also taking action against academics whose practises violate their policies. Researchers have used APIs and social analytics tools, dummy accounts, and scraped data to determine, for example, whether online housing ads discriminate against Black people or whether fake news receives more online engagement than real news as topics like online disinformation, ad targeting, and algorithmic bias have become important areas of study. These techniques frequently contravene the carefully constructed terms of service that restrict, among other things, data scraping, data sharing, and fraudulent accounts. Therefore, digital companies have occasionally used those terms of service as a cudgel to shut down even well-intentioned research projects in order to safeguard their users’ privacy — and their own reputations.

One of them is called Ad Observer. Just weeks before the presidential election, in October, as Facebook was inundated with political advertisements, Edelson and her collaborator, NYU and Facebook associate professor Damon McCoy, were given the order to not only shut down the browser extension by Nov. 30, but also to delete all the data they had gathered, or else they would face “additional enforcement action.” Even now, months later, there is still no agreement between the NYU team and Facebook.

“Not what NYU was attempting to do was the problem.

It was how they were attempting to do it “Steve Satterfield, director of privacy and public affairs at Facebook, said People who use the Ad Observer browser extension grant the NYU and Facebook researchers access to anything they can see from their browser, according to Satterfield. Any scraping of the information immediately contravenes Facebook’s policies. We’re open to collaboration, but there are some things on which we won’t budge, and this was one of them, according to Satterfield.

There are philosophical discussions around the interactions between scholars and Big Tech. Some are permitted. In fact, the Supreme Court is presently considering a case that experts worry could render research practises that contravene terms of service laws illegal. Though they all take place at a time when the world arguably needs such research the most, they are all a part of the delicate dance between researchers and social media platforms.

A game of cat and mouse

Edelson and McCoy had already been entangled in Facebook’s battle against data scraping.

The two researchers created a method to scrape the archive shortly after NYU and Facebook introduced its library of political ads, now known as Ad Library, in 2018. This allowed them to more quickly analyze the data. It was initially difficult for scholars and journalists to evaluate the data collection if they didn’t know what they were looking for because searching the Ad Library required performing keyword searches.

Although it appeared to have a wealth of delicious information, McCoy recalled that it appeared to have been hurriedly put together and was not too helpful.

McCoy hired Edelson, who had previously worked at Palantir before starting her Ph.D. programme, to construct a scraper that would offer them a bird’s-eye perspective of the political ad environment on Facebook. Before the 2018 midterm elections, the scraper uncovered a wealth of significant data regarding political advertising, most notably that the former president Trump was spending more on political advertisements than any other advertiser. In a piece published in July 2018 by The New York Times, Facebook’s former director of product management, Rob Leathern, was quoted as claiming that the NYU study was “exactly how we thought the tool would be utilised.”

Facebook still broke the tool shortly after the article was published.

The Times article appeared only four months after the Cambridge Analytica crisis, which involved Facebook’s privacy issues and was caused by a single Cambridge University professor who created a programme to collect the data of unwary Facebook users. Soon after starting its anti-scraping initiatives, Facebook made technical adjustments that effectively stopped Edelson and McCoy’s exploit. According to Facebook, these anti-scraping initiatives, which have been in place since 2018, haven’t focused on any particular tool. However, McCoy and Edelson experienced the same effects. It turns into a game of cat and mouse, McCoy added. “We circumvent it, and they build other hurdles.”

The General Data Protection Regulation, which introduced new restrictions on data sharing and new consent criteria for data gathering, entered into effect in Europe just two months before the Times piece.

Tech businesses now had a number of legal justifications for withholding data from researchers who were generating negative results nevertheless. According to Nu Wexler, who worked in policy communications at Facebook during the Cambridge Analytica incident and afterwards worked at Google, “it was a bit of a PR decision, but also a policy decision.”

At least that conflict with Facebook ended quickly. NYU and Facebook team to be early testers of its political ad archive API shortly after breaking NYU’s scraper. Using the API, Edelson and McCoy started researching the dissemination of false information and misinformation through political advertisements. They rapidly discovered that the dataset was seriously lacking in one crucial piece of information: information on the audiences that the ads were intended for. For instance, the Trump team released a commercial last year that depicted a post-Biden dystopia in which the world is on fire and no one answers 911 calls because of “defunding of the police department.” Edelson discovered that this advertisement had been expressly intended for married suburban women. According to Edelson, that context is important for comprehending the advertisement.

Facebook, however, was reluctant to make targeting information public. That might make it too simple to reverse-engineer someone’s interests and other personal information, claims Satterfield. Assuming someone likes or comments on an advertisement, for example, it wouldn’t be difficult to check the targeting information on that advertisement, if it were made public, and determine that the person in question satisfies the targeting requirements. “You might be able to learn things about the people who engaged with the advertisement if you mix those two data sets,” Satterfield said.

This was one of the areas where we wouldn’t consider making concessions.

Because of this, Facebook only makes ad targeting information available to users after they have personally seen an advertisement. Edelson and McCoy created Ad Observer as a workaround in light of this. Installing the browser extension allowed users to browse Facebook while willingly providing their own ad targeting information. In May 2020, McCoy and Edelson launched a programme that was designed to remove data that potentially include personally identifiable information in response to privacy concerns. Ad Observer eventually had more than 15,000 installations.

The idea that Facebook users might unintentionally hand up other people’s data to outside researchers immediately raised red flags within Facebook. Facebook has already filed lawsuits against businesses that have been detected data-scraping. They contend that how they handled the NYU squad was merely a continuation of that effort. According to Facebook’s Satterfield, “That activity, which was encouraging users to install extensions that scrape data, was what led to the action we took.”

A worldwide ricochet

The cease-and-desist letter from Facebook was intended for the NYU team, but it spread throughout the entire world of research. Australian researcher Mark Ledwich, who monitors YouTube, claimed that the conflict has already dampened interest in his and other transparency initiatives.

Ledwich is one of the co-founders of transparency. Tube, a website that analyses the most popular English-language YouTube channels and groups them according to factors like their political leanings or if they disseminate conspiracies. Additionally, he is a co-founder of Pendulum, a brand-new firm in internet forensics. Initially, YouTube’s API—which has limitations on data storage and the number of API calls a developer is permitted to make each day—was used to power transparency. Tube. Ledwich claimed that adhering to such conditions would have rendered his task impractical.

There is no way to do research like ours without violating their terms of service, according to Ledwich. Ledwich started utilising numerous accounts to circumvent those conditions in order to collect data, but after telling YouTube about it, he was completely barred from the API.

Ledwich started collecting publicly accessible YouTube data instead. He claims the technique has scared off some potential research collaborators, but it has provided him new insights into what’s happening on the platform. For example, the Institute for Data, Democracy and Politics at George Washington University recently declined Ledwich’s request for financing and referenced NYU’s problems with Facebook as justification. The justification, according to Ledwich, was that they were concerned about the risk following Facebook’s legal threat against the NYU Ad Observatory.

Rebekah Tromble, the Institute’s director, stated that in her opinion, researchers should be allowed legal protection to scrape data provided they do it in a manner that respects users’ privacy, as she believes the NYU researchers do. She has also pushed for legislation in the U.S. and Europe that would establish guidelines for this kind of data sharing. “However, our commitments to the institution and our own funders mean we have to proceed with caution when it comes to offering financial support for constructing tools based on scraping,” Tromble added. “I’m thrilled to promote transparency. tube and other data-scraping initiatives, but at this time our institute is unable to support them.”

There is no way to carry out our research without violating their terms of service.

YouTube content is predominantly video-based, unlike Facebook and Twitter, which makes it more challenging for researchers to evaluate in mass. None of the researchers or former Google employees who were contacted by Protocol for this story were aware of any transparency projects that YouTube had developed for outside researchers, and YouTube was also unable to provide any specific research studies. YouTube often collaborates with scholars from around the globe on a variety of important topics, according to spokesperson Elena Hernandez.

While the search team does not currently have any research projects to share, Google spokesperson Lara Levin noted that “search is quite different from social networks and feed/recommendation-based products, in that it is responding to user queries and it is an open platform that researchers [and] media can (and do) study.”

Due to the limitations of the API, researchers that scrape publicly accessible data are responsible for some of the most enlightening transparency efforts involving YouTube. Guillaume Chaslot, the creator of and a former employee of Google, developed his application to track YouTube suggestions in this manner.

YouTube forbids scraping, with the exception of search engines or situations in which it has granted prior written consent. But according to Chaslot, YouTube hasn’t yet made an effort to stop him. “It would be quite unprofessional of them to cut me off. They appear to be really reluctant to have anyone witness what they are doing “explained he. The business has even invited Chaslot to visit its offices to talk about how it’s resolving some of the problems he’s raised.

However, that does not imply that YouTube has given his work its complete support. YouTube attempted to discredit Chaslot’s methods when he originally shared his story with The Guardian in 2018 and presented findings that, among other things, revealed that YouTube recommendations had steered viewers toward pro-Trump content prior to the 2016 election. A spokeswoman at the time told The Guardian that the sample of 8,000 films that they examined “does not offer a true picture of what videos were recommended on YouTube over a year ago in the run-up to the US presidential election.”

They claim that because I only gather a small portion of the data, I don’t have a complete picture. Similar justifications from YouTube for why the firm believes AlgoTransparency’s findings are false were supplied to Protocol.

NYU and Facebook YouTube is one of the least researched social media channels as a result of all of this. In a recent review of papers presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association last year, it was discovered that only 28 papers, compared to 41 for Facebook, contained the names Google or YouTube in them. Twitter outperformed them both, showing up in 51 studies. Researchers found that whereas YouTube data only showed in slightly less than 9% of the articles they examined, Twitter data appeared in more than half of the studies they looked at.

That’s evidence of Twitter’s innately open nature and of its deliberate efforts to collaborate with scholars. However, even that study did not take into account all of Twitter’s activities. Up until recently, the complete history of tweets was only accessible to corporate developers who paid for access to the API. Most researchers only used a portion of what the free version supplied. Twitter said earlier this year that it was modifying that and establishing a free API with restricted access to the whole archive for researchers.

According to Adam Tornes, staff product manager at Twitter, “access to Twitter data gives researchers with useful insight into what’s occurring around the world, but their triumphs have mostly been in spite of Twitter, not because of us.” “We have overlooked their particular circumstances, as well as their various needs and capacities, for far too long. We have also fallen short of recognizing and embracing the importance and influence of scholarly work utilising Twitter data.”

NYU and Facebook For researchers, there is a trade-off even in this upgrade. Since Twitter has capped the number of tweets researchers can gather at 10 million per month, they will now have access to more historical data on the platform. Josh Tucker, a second NYU professor and the lab’s co-director, stated, “We have all these initiatives ongoing that are premised on collecting a lot more data than we’re going to be permitted to collect.” “Someone at Twitter may, without our knowledge or consent, change the course of our research agenda going forward.”

Twitter stated that it will offer extra levels of access for researchers without that data cap and that it is willing to change the product to meet their needs.

NYU and Facebook According to Casey Fiesler, an assistant professor at the University of Colorado Boulder who specialises in tech research ethics, making such much historical data available could potentially lead to additional complex ethical problems. Fiesler discovered that the majority of respondents to a recent poll of Twitter users had no awareness that their tweets were being examined. No matter what the purpose of the experimentation, many individuals fundamentally disagree with it, according to Fiesler.

Without our involvement, someone at Twitter might change the course of our research plan in the future.
For this reason, among others, Fiesler can see why Facebook could be concerned about the findings of the NYU researchers. Since the Federal Trade Commission found that Facebook had violated an earlier consent order by failing to secure user data, the Cambridge Analytica scandal ultimately cost the firm $5 billion in fines. “I don’t envy Facebook’s situation in this case. Take a look at the numerous privacy scandals they’ve handled “She spoke.

Fiesler acknowledges the motives of the NYU researchers and believes that other parties should be permitted to grade their assignments in addition to tech corporations. The core fact is that this is challenging, said Fiesler. “These are value conflicts, and there may be no winning in some circumstances.”

Scraping is not illegal.

Facebook has recently taken major steps toward transparency in response to all of the researcher concerns. Following nearly two years of difficult discussions with a different group of academics, Facebook last year made a collection of 38 million URLs available to pre-approved scholars. Later in the year, the business disclosed that it was collaborating with 17 researchers to examine Facebook’s effects on political polarisation, voter turnout, democratic confidence, and the dissemination of false information during the 2020 election.

In January, Facebook said that it would be disclosing targeting information on 1.3 million political ads that were broadcast prior to the 2020 presidential election. The drawback is that researchers are unable to export the raw data because the data is shared in a secure environment. Satterfield stated, “What we’re attempting to do is limit the chances of the information being misused.”

Facebook offered the NYU team access to this targeting data over the course of the negotiations, but Edelson claimed the privacy constraints would make the kind of study she and McCoy do unfeasible. “Data is collected, then joined with other data sets. We develop models. In this system, none of that would be possible “She spoke.

However, Edelson applauds Facebook’s efforts to make more data accessible to both academics and the general public through programmes like the Ad Library and CrowdTangle, a social media analytics programme owned by Facebook that mainly attracts criticism for demonstrating the prevalence of far-right propaganda in the United States. CrowdTangle data has enabled Edelson and a number of colleagues to discover that before and soon after the 2020 election, far-right misinformation on Facebook received greater engagement than other sorts of political news.

“Give credit where it’s due. More data than anyone else has been made available on Facebook, “Edelson declared. She also thinks there are valid reasons why some research projects must be conducted in secure settings. “There is a role for cooperation between researchers and platforms that involve private data that must be kept fairly secret. I believe it’s fantastic that such alliances are forming “She spoke.

As a primary researcher on Facebook’s 2020 election study, Tucker, the NYU politics professor who expressed worry about his lab’s Twitter research projects, is also involved in the study. Tucker wrote extensively about the trade-offs researchers must make when deciding whether to work with a platform or go it alone before joining. According to him, he entered the Facebook deal with “eyes wide open.”

According to Tucker, conducting research independently “has the benefit of total independence, but it puts you to all sorts of restrictions to access data, as well as the arbitrary character of the platform.”

But collaborating closely with a business like Facebook, as he is doing now, has drawbacks as well. One: You have to persuade the businesses to work with you, he stated. When working with individuals who are paid employees of the organisation, how do you protect the integrity of the research, then?

When negotiating the project’s terms, Tucker and his co-leader Talia Stroud of the University of Texas at Austin insisted that the external researchers have complete control over any papers that emerge from the project. Additionally, they pre-registered their plans, effectively informing the public of everything they would inevitably share before they collected any data. Only Facebook personnel would have access to the raw data, and Facebook would have the right to evaluate files to make sure they don’t break any laws. These were the conditions Facebook brought to the table. None of the researchers would get compensation from Facebook; instead, Facebook would pay for the cost of data collecting and the time of NYU and Facebook nyu ad observerlapowskyprotocol personnel.

When working with individuals who are paid employees of the company, how do you preserve the integrity of the research?
Tucker claimed that so far, the project “has not gone without hiccups.” Particularly, Facebook doesn’t want to disclose any of the underlying data it collects, whereas Tucker’s team does. Tucker stated that the discussions are still in progress.

Despite such disagreements, he nonetheless thinks that initiatives like this one that involve collaboration are essential and hopes that it will serve as an example for other businesses. With these significant adjustments by these platforms in the middle of the process, Tucker remarked that this election is likely the most significant of the post-war era. “We have a research that evaluates the impact of it.” At the very least, he contends, that is a significant contribution.

NYU and Facebook and Edelson concur that this does not, however, do away with the need for research that takes place outside of Facebook’s guidelines. Tech businesses’ self-imposed transparency initiatives have raised concerns about the extent of data they are actually sharing and their inability to come up with innovative, secure sharing methods. The truth is that tech behemoths have no incentive to guide academics as they identify the corporations’ errors. There aren’t many scholars who will publish overwhelmingly uplifting studies about social media and data at the moment, according to Wexler.

The borders that researchers can and cannot breach may not be under the long-term control of tech businesses. Courts and other agencies are increasingly providing the answers to those queries. A federal court determined in the spring that researchers who use fictitious job profiles to research algorithmic discrimination in violation of the terms of service of businesses wouldn’t be breaking the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, which obliquely prohibits unauthorized access to computer systems. Another case involving the same issues of what constitutes unlawful access is Van Buren v. United States, which the Supreme Court will decide on this summer. Researchers are concerned that the court’s ruling in that case could significantly expand the application of the CFAA and have far-reaching effects on individuals like Edelson.

NYU and Facebook Edelson was virtually present on the day the court heard oral arguments in Van Buren last fall while sporting a T-shirt that read, “Scraping is not a crime.”

Regulators in Europe are also working to establish a compromise with GDPR that would permit some data exchange with researchers. Pre-screened academic researchers could access data from “very large online platforms” under the terms of Article 31 of the Digital Services Act, which the European Commission proposed last December, provided that access does not compromise trade secrets or cause material security vulnerabilities.

“We do admit that some of the data that researchers or regulatory agencies are interested in could have a substantial impact on privacy. It may reveal a person’s political or sexual preferences, “Mathias Vermeulen, public policy head of the U.K. data rights organisation AWO, who has pushed for increased data sharing with researchers, stated. “I believe that these issues can be addressed in large part by getting together and outlining some of the respective responsibilities.”

The talks between Facebook and NYU are currently at a standstill. Facebook refused to say whether it intended to file a lawsuit or take other legal action against Edelson and McCoy. The entire scientific community will be watching to see what happens next if it does. If Facebook prevails in that lawsuit, Ledwich predicted that it will put an end to a lot of institutional financing for illegal social media research, including YouTube.

Edelson said she will continue working no matter what happens next. In actuality, it’s growing. She and McCoy recently renamed their research team Cybersecurity for Democracy from the Online Political Transparency Project in an effort to enlarge its purview. They have continued to operate Ad Observer under that guise and, in the past month, have started using it to gather data from YouTube as well. “As a security researcher, it is my responsibility to check the security of online systems. We are aware that the ad distribution networks are having issues. They are social engineering attack vectors, hence it is my responsibility to research them “She spoke. I won’t quit doing that, I promise.

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2131953663: Decoding the Numeric Enigma




Welcome to the mysterious world of 2131953663, a number that holds secrets waiting to be unravelled. In this blog post, we will delve into the history, significance, hidden meanings, and real-life examples behind this enigmatic numerical sequence. Get ready to embark on a journey of discovery as we decode the numeric enigma of 2131953663!

The History and Origin of the Number

Have you ever pondered the history and origin of the enigmatic number 2131953663? This numerical sequence holds a mysterious allure, with its roots shrouded in obscurity. The journey into its past unveils a tale that transcends time and space.

The origins of 2131953663 can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where numbers held symbolic significance beyond mere mathematical value. From mystical practices to profound philosophical interpretations, this number has traversed through centuries, leaving behind a trail of intrigue and curiosity.

As we delve deeper into the historical archives, we unravel the intricate tapestry woven by countless minds seeking to decipher the secrets hidden within this cryptic arrangement of digits. Each era adding layers of complexity and meaning to its already enigmatic nature.

The evolution of 2131953663 mirrors humanity’s quest for understanding the universe’s mysteries, inviting us to contemplate not just its numerical value but also its cultural and metaphysical implications.

The Mathematical Significance of 2131953663

Diving into the mathematical significance of 2131953663 unveils a world of intriguing possibilities. The number’s composition sparks curiosity, with its unique sequence and arrangement. Each digit holds a specific value that contributes to the overall sum, creating a complex yet harmonious equation.

When dissected through various mathematical operations, patterns and relationships begin to emerge. The prime factorization of 2131953663 sheds light on its intrinsic properties, revealing hidden layers of depth within its numerical makeup. Exploring the number from different angles opens doors to new insights and interpretations, challenging traditional notions of mathematics.

Through calculations and analyses, mathematicians can uncover underlying principles embedded within 2131953663’s structure. Its divisibility rules and algebraic properties offer avenues for exploration and experimentation, leading to further discoveries in the realm of numbers. In essence, the mathematical significance of 2131953663 transcends mere digits; it represents a gateway to endless possibilities in numerical theory and beyond.

Uncovering Hidden Patterns and Meanings

Have you ever stopped to consider the hidden patterns and meanings that lie beneath the surface of seemingly random numbers? The enigmatic number 2131953663 is no exception when it comes to harboring secrets waiting to be unveiled.

By closely examining the sequence of digits, one may start noticing recurring patterns or relationships between certain numbers within 2131953663. These hidden connections could hold symbolic significance or represent a deeper message yet to be deciphered.

Exploring the mathematical properties and potential correlations within 2131953663 can lead to fascinating discoveries about its intrinsic nature. Whether it’s through numerical analysis, symbolism, or even numerology, delving into these hidden patterns can reveal layers of meaning beyond what meets the eye.

Uncovering these subtle intricacies adds a sense of mystery and intrigue to the number 2131953663, inviting us to unravel its enigma further and uncover any underlying messages it may hold.

Real-Life Examples and Interpretations

Real-life examples and interpretations of the enigmatic number 2131953663 offer a fascinating glimpse into its potential meanings. Some believe that this number holds significance in numerology, guiding individuals towards their life path or destiny. Others see patterns emerging when analyzing dates, addresses, or phone numbers that contain this mysterious sequence.

In the realm of technology, some tech enthusiasts speculate on whether 2131953663 could be linked to binary code or encryption methods. Perhaps it conceals a hidden message waiting to be deciphered by those skilled in cryptography.

Moreover, artists and creatives may find inspiration in exploring the aesthetic qualities of 2131953663 through visual representations or musical compositions. The abstract nature of numbers allows for endless possibilities in artistic expression.

Real-life examples and interpretations showcase the diverse ways in which it can spark curiosity and ignite imagination across various fields and disciplines.

Possible Explanations and Theories behind 2131953663

Have you ever pondered the mysterious nature of numbers and their hidden meanings? It is no exception. Some believe it holds a mystical significance, possibly tied to ancient numerology or cosmic alignments. Others speculate it could be a code waiting to be deciphered, unlocking secrets yet unknown.

Could it represent a key date in history, an important event that reshaped our world in ways we can only begin to fathom? Or perhaps it’s a mathematical anomaly with unique properties that defy conventional explanation.

As theories swirl around this enigmatic number, one thing remains clear: its allure lies in the endless possibilities for interpretation and discovery. Whether rooted in science, spirituality, or pure chance, the true essence of it may forever elude us.

Pros of 2131953663

When it comes to the number 2131953663, there are several intriguing pros worth exploring. One significant advantage is the sense of mystery and curiosity it evokes in people’s minds. The enigmatic nature of this number sparks interest and encourages individuals to delve deeper into its meanings.

Another pro is the mathematical significance embedded within it. This complex numerical sequence offers a unique challenge for mathematicians and enthusiasts alike, providing an opportunity for analytical thinking and problem-solving.

Moreover, it can serve as a source of inspiration and creativity. Its cryptic composition may inspire artists, writers, and thinkers to explore new ideas or concepts that stem from its patterns and arrangements.

The pros of 2131953663 extend beyond mere digits on a page; they encompass a realm of possibilities waiting to be uncovered by those willing to embark on this numerical journey.

Cons of 2131953663

When looking at the number 2131953663, some may argue that its complexity can be a drawback. The intricate arrangement of digits may make it challenging to decipher any concrete meaning or significance behind it for some individuals. Additionally, the sheer size of the number might overwhelm those trying to analyze or interpret it.

Another potential downside is the lack of widely accepted interpretations or explanations for it. Without clear consensus on its symbolism or relevance, understanding its true essence remains a mystery to many. This ambiguity can lead to frustration and confusion among those seeking deeper insights into this enigmatic sequence of numbers.

Furthermore, skeptics may dismiss the significance of 2131953663 as mere coincidence or random chance. In a world where rationality often trumps mysticism, some may struggle to find merit in assigning special meaning to seemingly arbitrary numerical sequences like this one.

Despite these perceived drawbacks, enthusiasts and researchers continue to explore the mysteries surrounding it with curiosity and determination, eager to unlock its hidden secrets and unravel its enigmatic nature.

Conclusion: Is there a Deeper Meaning to 2131953663?

As we delve into the enigmatic world of it, one cannot help but wonder about the deeper meanings that lie beneath its numerical surface. Could this sequence hold a hidden message or significance waiting to be unravelled by those daring enough to seek it?

Perhaps 2131953663 is more than just a random string of numbers; maybe it holds clues to unlocking mysteries yet unknown. The patterns and connections within this sequence may point towards a greater universal truth or cosmic alignment.

Real-life examples and interpretations offer glimpses into how it might impact our daily lives, leading us to question the role of numerology in shaping our destinies. Possible explanations and theories continue to spark curiosity, fueling discussions among scholars and enthusiasts alike.

With pros and cons weighing in on the significance of 2131953663, the debate rages on as individuals strive to uncover its true essence. So, is there a deeper meaning to it? The quest for answers continues…

FAQs related to 2131953663

1. What is the significance of the number 2131953663?
The number it holds various meanings in mathematics, numerology, and beyond. It is believed to symbolize balance, harmony, and spiritual awakening.

2. Is there a specific reason why this number keeps appearing in my life?
Repeatedly encountering the number 2131953663 could indicate that you are on the right path or receiving guidance from the universe. Pay attention to your thoughts and emotions when you see it.

3. Can I use 2131953663 for manifestation purposes?
Many people believe that focusing on this number can help attract positive energy and manifest their desires. Give it a try by meditating on its symbolism.

4. Are there any historical references to 2131953663?
While there may not be direct historical references to this specific number, similar numerical patterns have been observed in ancient civilizations and religious texts.

5. How can I decode hidden messages behind 2131953663?
Try breaking down the digits into smaller numbers or exploring numerological interpretations to uncover hidden meanings associated with this mysterious sequence.

6. Does astrology play a role in understanding 2131953663?
Astrology enthusiasts often analyze numbers like it through birth charts or planetary alignments to gain insights into their personal growth journey.

7. Are there any cultural beliefs surrounding 2131953663?
Different cultures may have unique interpretations of numeric sequences like 2131953663 based on traditional folklore or spiritual practices handed down through generations.

8. Can dreams involving 2131953663 hold special significance?
Dreams featuring this particular number could symbolize subconscious messages related to transformation, intuition, or inner wisdom waiting to be unlocked.


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Top 30 Fastest Bikes in the World




Fastest Bikes in the World

List of Top 30 Fastest Bikes in the World Complied by “Fabulaes”

Bikes for the Bikers are just like the Paris for the Lovers. They just can’t choose any other thing for their expressions. Bikers are always in search of the speed beauty of these “Wheel Chicks”. Here we have compiled a list of World’s top 30 fastest bikes.

30. Honda VF1000R

fastest bike in the world

fastest bike in the world

Honda introduced the VF1000R in the European Market in March 1984, with Max Speed of 150 mph (240 km/h). The main inspiration behind the creation of VF1000R was that Honda wanted to design a piece that can compete with commentators having innovative and modern technology.

29. Ducati 1098S

Ducati 1098S

Ducati is famous for producing beautiful sport bikes since the 1940s. In 2007, the company launched their newest 1098S model with Max Speed of  169 mph (273 km/h). It has a powerful 1099cc twin cylinder engine.

28. BMW K 1200S

BMW K 1200S

The German Automotive giant BMW launched a specially designed K series motorcycle named K1200S in 2004 with Max Speed of 174 mph (278 km/h). The K1200S has an inline four-cylinder liquid cooled 1157cc engine. It can reach 100 km/h in merely 3.0 seconds.

27. BMW K 1300S

BMW K 1300S

BMW launched it in October 2008 and was a substitute for the former K1200S that had been in production since September 2004. When you start the engine, you will be welcomed with a pleasant, hexagonal tube throaty sound. The BMW K1300S can reach a peak velocity of over 174.5 mph, thanks to its sporty lineage & lightweight design.

26. Aprilia RSV 1000R Mille

Aprilia RSV 1000R Mille

Aprilia is an Italian motorcycle company and a familiar figure in the racing world. Aprilia produced the RSV 1000R Mille with Max Speed of 175 mph (281 km/h). Its 998cc V-twin engine was manufactured by Rotax an Austria based company.

25. Kawasaki Ninja ZX-10RR

Kawasaki Ninja ZX-10RR

Released as a special homologation version of Kawasaki’s already-highly-potent ZX-10R superbike, the ZX-10RR takes Team Green’s liter-sized flagship to the next level. Four-banger with a bi-directional quick shifter, electronic throttle valves, launch control mode, a redesigned head, and titanium connecting rods with Max Speed 186mph.

24. KTM 1290 Super Duke R

KTM 1290 Super Duke R

It is highest performance model is currently its 1290 Super Duke R. Powered by an even more refined version of the Austrian outfit’s LC8 V-Twin, the latest full-size Super Duke R packs an all-new Chromoly tubular space frame and revised composite sub-frame. It has max speed 186mph.

23. Honda CBR1000RR-R

Honda CBR1000RR-R

After spending several models years having its flagship superbike being viewed as long in the tooth, Honda is aiming to re-establish itself in the superbike sector with the all-new CBR1000RR-R Fireblade SP. Deriving much of its component from Honda’s premier class-dominating RC213V MotoGP bike, the extra-R SP-spec packs an advanced, modern electronics suite, an ultra-potent 215hp engine with max speed of 186mph.

22. Kawasaki Ninja ZX-14

Kawasaki Ninja ZX-14

The Kawasaki Ninja Zx-14 was first launched at the 2005 Tokyo motor Show. The ZZR14 is incorporated with the 1441cc 4 cylinder with Max Speed of 186 mph (299 km/h), DOHC, engine, capable of accelerating from 0–60 mph in 2.5 seconds.

21. Suzuki GSX-R1000R

Suzuki GSX-R1000R

GSX-R1000, which is an even more track-oriented take on the already-performance-focused machine. The base model like the variable valve timing, six-directional, tri-axis IMU, advanced twin-spar aluminum frame, and Showa race suspension setup. It has max speed 186.5mph.

20. MV Agusta F4 1000R

MV Agusta F4 1000R

MV Agusta F4 1000 R was the second mass produced bike of F4 1000 class which was released in 2006 with Max Speed of 187 mph (299 km/h). It is powered by a 998cc liquid cooled 4 cylinder engine with 16 radial vales. It has major upgrades from the previous F4 1000S bikes.

19. Yamaha YZF R1

Yamaha YZF R1

Yamaha YZF R1 was manufactured in Japan. It has a six speed transmission and multi clutch. It was first launched in 1999 and the present R1 saw only minor changes. The engine has forward inclined parallel 4 cylinders with Top Speed of 186 mph (300 km/h).

18. Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R

Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R

The Kawasaki Ninja Zx-12R was a sport bike produced from 2000 to 2006. Kawasaki intentions to compete with the Suzuki’s Hayabusa led to the launch of the ZX-12R. It has a 1199cc inline four cylinder engine with Max Speed of 187 mph (301 km/h).

17. Honda CBR 1100 XX Blackbird

Honda CBR 1100 XX Blackbird

Honda CBR 1100 XX Blackbird was produced from 1996 to 2007. It was solely intended to compete with the Kawasaki Ninja ZX-11 for the fastest production motorcycle in which it succeeded after two years of its launch. The Honda CBR 1100 XX has a 1137 cc, 4 valves per cylinder and liquid cooled engine with Max Speed of 190 mph (305 km/h).

16. Suzuki Hayabusa GSX1300R

Suzuki Hayabusa GSX1300R

The Suzuki Hayabusa GSX1300R or just simply Hayabusa is manufactured by Suzuki since 1999. After launch it immediately acclaimed the world’s fastest production motorcycle, currently it is the sixth fastest bike in the world of all time with Max Speed 188-194 mph.

15. MV Agusta Brutale 1000 Serie Oro

MV Agusta Brutale 1000 Serie Oro

Before MV Agusta rolls out a new production model in mass, it releases a small batch of ultra-high-end “Serie Oro” versions, and shortly before releasing its latest naked flagship: the Brutale 1000RR, MV Agusta launched 300 units of an ultra-exclusive Serie Oro-spec Brutale 1000. It got max speed of 188.9mph.

14. BMW S1000RR


With numerous model updates culminating in the fully-redesigned model for 2020. The first-ever BMW motorcycle offered with an optional M-Performance package, the 2020 S1000RR ditches its predecessor’s asymmetrical headlight setup with max speed of 192mph.

13. Suter Racing MMX 500

Suter Racing MMX 500

one of the most unique motorcycles produced in recent times: a 192.6mph+, 195hp, 576cc, fuel-injected, two-stroke, V-4 with all-carbon-fiber bodywork and top-of-the-line componentry, all in a package that tips the scales at just 280lbs wet. Entirely built by hand and equipped with custom Akrapovic expansion chambers and two-stroke pipe.

12. Ducati Panigale 1199 R

Ducati Panigale 1199 R

Ducati unveiled the all new Panigale 1199 R for the first time at the 2011 Milan motorcycle show. Its internal frame is made up of titanium and carbon fiber. It is equipped with an 1199 cc liquid cooled V-twin engine which delivers 195 horsepower with Max Speed of 202 mph (325 km/h).

11. Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory

Aprilia RSV4 1100 Factory

RSV4 with max speed of 198.8mph is incredibly potent in its base trim, the Noale firm nonetheless offers a top-of-the-line, race-derived Factory-spec of the Italian V-4 with a host of high-end upgrades including carbon fiber bodywork and a carbon heat-shield for its Akrapovic race exhaust, and integrated carbon fiber MotoGP-style aerodynamic winglets, among many others.

10. Ducati Panigale V4 R

Ducati Panigale V4 R

Ducati Panigale V4 R

This machine with max speed of 199 mph is one of the best-performance motorcycles on earth, not just based on its top speed and power output, but on its ability to fire-off insanely impressive lap times. The V4 R’s engine is also Ducati’s most powerful powertrain of all time.

9. Damon Motorcycles Hypersport Premier

Damon Motorcycles Hypersport Premier

Damon Motorcycles Hypersport Premier

The Hypersport Premier will be one of, if not the highest-performing electric motorcycle on the market, with a claimed 200-mile range, three-hour charge times, a sub-3-second 0-60mph time, and integrated GoPro-style cameras and a 4G-connected smart auto-pilot system, all in a sub-440lb package that offers 200hp outputs and a supposed top speed of 200mph.

8. Ducati Superleggera V4

Ducati Superleggera V4

Having max speed of 200mph Superleggera V4, taking the 234hp mill from the V4 R and stuffing it into a chassis made entirely from carbon fiber, before adorning it in all-carbon bodywork, and outfitting it with all-carbon wheels. The liberal use of carbon fiber also adds a degree of lightness that enables the Superleggera to achieve even higher speeds than the V4 R. Italian for “Super Light”, the Superleggera V4 is the epitome of two-wheeled exotica and moto-exclusivity.

7. Kawasaki Z H2

Kawasaki Z H2

Kawasaki Z H2

Kawasaki decided to add to that lineup with a forced-induction version, taking the supercharged four-cylinder engine from the NINJA H2 and dropping it into a new, naked package. With the benefit of a factory-installed supercharger, the Z H2 manages to deliver some insanely-impressive performance capabilities with max speed of 202mph.

6. PGM 2.0 Liter V8

PGM 2.0 Liter V8

A V8 powered motorcycle built by an Australian chap, Paul Maloney, this machine is the most powerful production motorcycle in the world. At the heart of it, is a powerplant that has been initialized by wedging two mid-2000s’ Yamaha R1 mills to feature one 90-degree 1996cc V8 engine pumping out a massive 334 hp. The engine gets Ride-by-Wire throttle, and a six-speed sequential gearbox that takes the top speed 209mph.

5. BMW HP4



The powertrain on this machine is an engineering feat and is handcrafted by the same chaps who work on the WSBK motorcycle making 215 hp. GP spec Titanium Ohlins and Brembos are a regular affair. A machine making use of all exotic and opulent items kept away for track-focused hooning that spares no expense. At 217 mph top speed, it is a sensual experience to only a select few who can afford such an extravagant phenomenon.

4. Lightning LS-218

Lightning LS-218

The Lightning LS-218 is an electric bike manufactured by the Lightning Motorcycle since 2011. In 2013 it became the fastest electric super-bike after hitting a record speed of 350 km/h at Bonneville Speedway. With Max Speed of 218 mph (351 km/h) it can reach 100 km/h in just 2 seconds.

3. Kawasaki Ninja H2R

Kawasaki Ninja H2R

The Kawasaki Ninja H2R is the current fastest production motorcycle in the world. First produced in 2015, the Ninja H2R has a centrifugal-type supercharged 998cc inline-4 DOHC engine, providing 310 hp at 14,000 rpm with Max Speed of 210 mph (340 km/h).

2. MTT Turbine Superbike Y2K

MTT Turbine Superbike Y2K

MTT Turbine Superbike Y2K

The MTT produced Y2K Super-bike is the first ever turbine powered street legal motorcycle. Earlier models were powered by Rolls-Royce-Allison Model 250-C18 turbo-shaft engines producing 320 HP and 425 ft/lbs of torque with Max Speed of 250 mph (402 km/h).

1. Dodge Tomahank

Dodge Tomahank

Dodge Tomahank

We have placed it as the fastest bike because of several reasons. Firstly, we are not saying that it is actually the fastest and most powerful bike, although it looks so, it’s just hypothetical. Secondly, Dodge claimed that the bike can reach the max speed of 300 to 420 miles per hour.

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Raoul A. Cortez: The Voice of the Marginalized in American Literature




Raoul A. Cortez

Step into the world of Raoul A. Cortez, a literary voice that echoes the stories of the marginalized in American society. Through his powerful words and compelling narratives, Cortez sheds light on untold struggles, triumphs, and injustices. Join us as we delve into the life and works of this extraordinary writer who has captured hearts and minds with his raw depiction of reality.

Background and upbringing of Cortez

Raoul A. Cortez, a literary voice of the marginalized in American literature, was born and raised in the vibrant streets of East Los Angeles. Growing up in a working-class Mexican-American family, Cortez experienced firsthand the struggles and challenges faced by his community.

His upbringing played a significant role in shaping his perspective on social issues and inequality. The rich tapestry of multicultural influences in his neighborhood provided him with a unique lens through which to view the world.

Cortez’s early experiences fueled his passion for storytelling and advocacy for those whose voices often go unheard. His background instilled in him a deep sense of empathy and understanding for the marginalized individuals he would later give voice to through his writing.

Themes in Cortez’s literature

Raoul A. Cortez’s literature delves into themes that resonate deeply with the marginalized communities in America. His writings often explore the complexities of identity, belonging, and social justice. Through his characters and narratives, Cortez shines a light on the struggles faced by those on the fringes of society.

One prevalent theme in Cortez’s work is the quest for empowerment and self-determination among individuals facing systemic barriers. He portrays their resilience and strength in navigating adversity with courage and dignity. Additionally, Cortez addresses issues of inequality, discrimination, and cultural erasure with nuance and sensitivity.

Moreover, his writing reflects a profound understanding of human experiences across different backgrounds and perspectives. By weaving together stories that amplify unheard voices, Cortez fosters empathy and compassion among readers. The richness of his themes invites reflection on pressing social issues while celebrating the diversity within American society.

literature also grapples with the complexities of cultural identity and the search for belonging. In his stories, characters struggle to reconcile their heritage with their present realities, grappling with questions of assimilation and cultural preservation.

Furthermore, Cortez often incorporates themes of intergenerational trauma and healing into his work. He explores the impact of historical injustices on individuals and communities, as well as the enduring resilience and strength passed down through generations.

Another recurring theme in Cortez’s literature is the power of community and collective action. His characters often find solace and strength in coming together to confront shared challenges, demonstrating the transformative potential of communal support and solidarity.

The impact of Cortez’s writing on marginalized communities

Raoul A. Cortez’s writing resonates deeply with marginalized communities across America, giving voice to their struggles and triumphs in a way that is both raw and powerful. Through his works, he sheds light on the injustices faced by those on the fringes of society, highlighting their resilience and humanity amidst adversity.

Cortez’s ability to capture the essence of marginalized experiences has enabled readers from all walks of life to empathize with characters who are often overlooked or misunderstood. His narratives provoke reflection and empathy, sparking important conversations about social justice and equality.

By centering stories around individuals who have been pushed to the margins, Cortez challenges societal norms and calls for greater understanding and compassion towards those who have been historically oppressed. His impact extends beyond literature; it serves as a catalyst for change and empowerment within marginalized communities nationwide.

Comparison with other influential writers in American literature

When examining the landscape of American literature, Raoul A. Cortez stands out among influential writers for his unwavering commitment to giving a voice to the marginalized communities in society. While authors like Toni Morrison and James Baldwin have also tackled issues of race and identity, Cortez’s work delves deep into the struggles faced by those on the fringes of society.

Unlike some writers who may touch on social issues briefly, Cortez’s writing is unapologetically raw and confrontational. His narratives pull readers into the harsh realities experienced by those often overlooked or silenced.

In comparison to other notable figures in American literature, such as Langston Hughes and Alice Walker, Cortez’s focus on giving agency to marginalized voices sets him apart. His works serve as a beacon of hope for those seeking representation and validation in a world that often seeks to exclude them.

While each influential writer brings their unique perspective to the table, Raoul A. Cortez shines brightly for his dedication to amplifying the voices that are too frequently ignored or suppressed in mainstream discourse.

Criticisms and controversies surrounding Cortez’s work

Critics have not been shy in voicing their opinions about Raoul A. Cortez’s work, sparking debates within literary circles. Some argue that Cortez’s portrayal of marginalized communities is too idealized and lacks realism, failing to capture the complexities of their experiences. Others believe that his focus on social justice issues overshadows artistic merit, leading to accusations of didacticism.

Controversies surrounding Cortez often revolve around the authenticity of his voice as a writer representing marginalized groups. Some question whether a privileged author like Cortez can authentically depict the struggles and realities faced by those he seeks to advocate for. Additionally, there are concerns about cultural appropriation and whether Cortez crosses boundaries in portraying diverse characters and narratives.

Despite these criticisms and controversies, supporters of Cortez argue that his bold approach challenges societal norms and sheds light on important social issues often overlooked in mainstream literature. The ongoing discourse surrounding his work reflects the power it holds in provoking thought-provoking discussions within the literary landscape.

Legacy of Raoul A. Cortez and his contributions to American literature

Raoul A. Cortez’s legacy in American literature stands as a testament to his unwavering commitment to giving a voice to the marginalized. His works continue to resonate with readers from all walks of life, shedding light on issues often overlooked by mainstream narratives.

Cortez’s contributions have paved the way for future generations of writers to explore themes of social justice, inequality, and identity with depth and nuance. By delving into the complexities of human experience, he has challenged societal norms and sparked important conversations that endure to this day.

Through his writing, Cortez has empowered those on the fringes of society to speak their truth and demand recognition. His impact goes beyond words on a page; it is a call to action for empathy, understanding, and change within our communities.

As we reflect on Raoul A. Cortez’s lasting influence in American literature, we are reminded of the power of storytelling to inspire compassion and ignite transformation.


As we wrap up our exploration of Raoul A. Cortez’s impactful contributions to American literature, it becomes evident that his voice continues to resonate with marginalized communities across the nation. Through his works, Cortez shed light on the struggles and triumphs of those often overlooked in mainstream narratives.

His upbringing and background significantly influenced his storytelling, infusing authenticity into his portrayals of individuals facing societal injustices. Themes such as identity, social inequality, and cultural heritage are recurrent in Cortez’s literature, striking a chord with readers from diverse backgrounds.

Despite criticisms and controversies surrounding some of his work, Cortez remains a pivotal figure whose legacy endures through the generations. His ability to give voice to the marginalized has paved the way for future writers to challenge norms and advocate for social change through their artistry.

In essence, Raoul A. Cortez’s impact on American literature is profound and lasting – a testament to the power of storytelling in amplifying marginalized voices throughout history.


Q: What makes Raoul A. Cortez’s writing stand out in American literature?
A: Cortez’s ability to give a voice to the marginalized and tackle important social issues sets him apart in American literature.

Q: How did Cortez’s background influence his work?
A: Growing up in challenging circumstances, Cortez drew inspiration from his own experiences and used them to shed light on societal injustices.

Q: What is the legacy of Raoul A. Cortez?
A: Raoul A. Cortez leaves behind a powerful legacy as a writer who fearlessly portrayed the struggles of marginalized communities, sparking conversations and advocating for change through his works.

Q: Where can I find more information about Raoul A. Cortez’s writings?
A: To explore more of Raoul A. Cortez’s impactful literary works, consider reading his novels such as “Voices from the Margins” and “Invisible Threads.”

Q: What makes Raoul A. Cortez’s literature stand out?
A: Raoul A. Cortez’s literature stands out for its raw, authentic portrayal of marginalized communities and their struggles in America.

Q: How did Cortez’s background influence his writing?
A: Cortez’s upbringing in a diverse and challenging environment provided him with firsthand experiences that fueled his writing with empathy and understanding.

Q: What is the legacy of Raoul A. Cortez in American literature?
A: Raoul A. Cortez left behind a powerful legacy as the voice of the marginalized, inspiring future generations to continue advocating for social justice through their work.

As we delve into the life and works of Raoul A. Cortez, it becomes evident that he was not just a writer but also an advocate for those whose voices were often silenced or ignored by mainstream society. Through his poignant storytelling and unwavering commitment to shedding light on social issues, he left an indelible mark on American literature, inspiring future generations to continue championing justice and equality for all members of society.

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