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Kelly Rebecca Nichols Wiki, Biography, Net Worth, Family, Husband

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Kelly Rebecca Nichols is an American animal rights activist. As the head of public relations and media operations of the famous nonprofit organization “People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals” (PETA), Nichols has been featured on several American publications, such as “USA Today”. She is best known as the ex-wife of well-known far-right conspiracy theorist and radio show host Alex Jones. Nichol divorce with Jones caught the attention of many as two were entangled in a legal battle over the custody of their children. Like her ex-husband, Jones, Kelly Nichols too is known for controversies. As part of her association with “PETA” she has been involved in many publicity stunts over the years.

Physical Appearance

Kelly has blonde hair, and her eyes shading is hazel. Her body weight and tallness has not been shared.

Kelly Rebecca Nichols’s Age

Currently, Kelly Rebecca Nichols is 51 years old.

Education

There is no authentic information about Kelly Rebecca Nichols’s qualifications. However, we can say that she is graduated and well educated lady.

Bio / Wiki

Full Name Kelly Rebecca Nichols
Surname Kelly
Profession Animal Rights Activist

 Physical State And Body Measurements

Height (approx) Not available
Weight (approx) Not available
Body Measurements Not available
Eye Colour Hazel
Hair Colour Blonde
Skin Colour White

 Net Worth

Net Worth $ 5 million

 Personal Life

Date of Birth 2nd July, 1968
Age 52 Years Old
Birth Place Travis County, Texas
Zodiac Sign Cancer
Address Travis County, Texas
Religion Jewish American
Martial Status Divorce
Boy Friends/Affairs No
Nationality American

 Qualification

 School Not available
Qualification Not available

 Names Of Parents &Siblings

Mother Sandra Kay Heiligman
Father Edmund Lowe Nichlos
Brother(s) James Edmund Nichlos
Brother(s) Jill Elizabeth Nichlos

 Favourite Things

Hobbies Reading books
FavoriteTV Show Not available
FavoriteDrink Not Available
Favorite Color(s) Black and White
Favorite Sport Cricket
Favorite Actor Not available
Favorite Actress Not available
Favorite Food Sea Food
Favorite Place USA

Career

After completing her education, Kelly Nichols started working as an animal rights activist. She then moved to Norfolk, Virginia, where she became the head of public relations and media operations of ‘PETA.’ She also became involved in several publicity stunts that explained the importance of protecting animals. In one such publicity stunt, Nichols showed up at the ‘Four Seasons Restaurant’ in New York City and placed a dead raccoon on Anna Wintour’s plate while the latter was enjoying dinner at the restaurant. Anna Wintour is a British-American journalist and editor-in-chief of ‘Vogue’ magazine. In another infamous publicity stunt, Nichols surprised American-Dominican fashion designer Oscar de la Renta by smashing a tofu cream pie into his face as part of her anti-fur campaign. Thanks to her innovative publicity stunts, Nichols was featured in several American publications which increased her popularity.

Net Worth

Kelly Rebecca Nichols total assets is obscure however, her ex has a complete total asset of more than $ 5 million.

Marriage/Affairs Of Kelly Rebecca Nichols

Kelly Rebecca Nichols married the well-known conspiracy theorist and radio show host Alex Jones, in 2007. She helped Jones’ career by promoting his shows. She also used her experience in the field of public relations and media operations to help Jones expand his brand “InfoWars” Subsequently, “InfoWars” went on to become a popular conspiracy theory and fake news website. Nichols and Jones were blessed with three children before the couple decided to part ways. As part of their divorce settlement, Jones was asked to pay $3.1 million to Nichols. She also received the keys to an impressive mansion in Austin, as part of the settlement. Their divorce was finalized in March 2015, and a battle of custody followed. In 2017, she sought joint or sole custody of their children, citing Jones’ behavior. Nichols said that she is concerned about his ‘felonious behavior’ and also claimed that he is ‘not a stable person.’ Later that year, Nichols revealed in one of her interviews that Jones had ridiculed her throughout their marriage and that he often exhibits rage. Eventually, she was granted the right to decide where her children should live, while Alex Jones was granted visitation rights by the court.

Personal Life

Kelly Rebecca Nichols was born on July 2, 1968, in Travis County, Texas, USA, to Edmund Lowe Nichols and Sandra Kay Heiligman. She grew up in Travis County along with her siblings, James Edmund Nichols and Jill Elizabeth Nichols.Kelly Rebecca Nichols’ parents were Jews. Her father, Edmund Lowe Nichols, is a former US diplomat. In 1993, Nichols’ father was convicted for violating the conflict of interest statute under federal law. Kelly Nichols has a son and two daughters. Her son Rex Jones has worked for his father’s company ‘Infowars.’ He once made headlines for appearing in a video which criticized ‘gun control’ laws in the United States. Nichols currently lives in the US where she continues to work with ‘PETA.’

Did You Know!

Frequently Ask Questions about Kelly Rebecca Nichols:

Kelly Rebecca Nichols is famous for?

Nichols is famous as an animal rights activist.

Is any affair of Kelly Rebecca Nichols?

Kelly Rebecca Nichols married the well-known conspiracy theorist and radio show host Alex Jones, in 2007

What was Kelly Rebecca Nichols famous activities?

Nichols surprised American-Dominican fashion designer Oscar de la Renta by smashing a tofu cream pie into his face as part of her anti-fur campaign. Nichols was featured in several American publications which increased her popularity.

Did Kelly Rebecca Nichols get any child during her married life?

Kelly Nichols has a son and two daughters.

Kelly Rebecca Nichols Social Media

No Official Social Media Account is Declared by Kelly Rebecca Nichols.

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Celebrity Spouse

Jessica Gadsden Wiki, Biography, Net Worth, Family, Boyfriend

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Jessica Gadsden Biography

Jessica Gadsden was born on November 29, 1981, in the US state of South Carolina. Little is known about his family and upbringing. Jessica Gadsden and Charlamagne met when they were both high school students and a relationship soon developed between them. Jessica Gadsden is an American Fitness Coach, Gym Advisor, and Personal Trainer. She is the wife of radio presenter, television personality, and author Leonard Larry McKinley, better known by her professional name, Charlamagne Tha God. A native of South Carolina, she has known Charlamagne since they were both in high school. At some point, they started dating. Relationships have survived many riots, including mutual disbelief. They have two daughters together. In 2014, the couple exchanged wedding vows. At school, Gadsden was an exemplary student and earned three degrees, a BA in Journalism and Mass Communication, an MBA, and a BS in Biology. Jessica Gadsden has been involved in the fitness industry for several years and has worked in numerous athletic clubs and gyms, including the New York Blood Services, the East Coast Athletic Club, and the Core Fire Pilates. Currently, she owns her own gym.

Physical Appearance

Jessica Gadsden stands at 5 feet and 5 inches tall and weighs about 62kg. It has curly brown and eyes gray.

Jessica Gadsden’s Age

Currently, Jessica Gadsden is 38 years old.

Education

Education has always been important to Gadsden. Jessica Gadsden enrolled at the University of South Carolina Columbia, where she earned her bachelor’s degree in journalism and mass communications. She also received a Bachelor of Science degree in biology from Bergen Community College in 2013. she also holds an MBA from Webster University in Missouri. Exercise, a healthy lifestyle, and fitness are also important parts of her life. For many years, she has been associated with the fitness industry.

Bio / Wiki

Full Name Jessica Gadsden
Nick Name Jessica
Profession Family Member American Women

 Physical State And Body Measurements

Height (approx) 5 Feet 5 Inches
Weight (approx) 62 Kg
Body Measurements Not available
Eye Colour Grey
Hair Colour Curly brown
Skin Colour Black

Net Worth

Net Worth $ 1 million

Personal Life

Date of Birth 29th November, 1981
Age 38 years old.
Birth Place South Carolina
Zodiac Sign Sagittarius
Address South Carolina
Martial Status Married
Boy Friends/Affairs No
Nationality American

Qualification

University South Carolina Columbia
Qualification Bachelor’s in Journalism, BSC in Biology and MBA from Webster University

Names Of Parents & Siblings

Mother Not available
Father Not available
Brother(s) Not available
Brother(s) Not available

Favourite Things

Hobbies Shopping, Travelling
Favorite TV Show Not available
Favorite Drink Not Available
Favorite Color(s) Pink and White
Favorite Sport Hockey
Favorite Actor Not available
Favorite Actress Not available
Favorite Food Not available
Favorite Place USA

Career

She has worked in numerous athletic clubs and gyms, including the New York Blood Services, the East Coast Athletic Club, and the Core Fire Pilates. Later, she established her own gym and began working as a personal trainer and instructor. She has also started training on weight lifting, bodybuilding, and gymnastics. Gadsden previously had an Instagram account but has now deleted it.

Net Worth

Jessica Gadsden has a net worth of US $1 from her career as a fitness coach. And her husband Charlamagne was God worth 10 million with an annual salary of $3 million.

 Rape Allegations

In 2018, Charlamagne admitted that his first sexual encounter with Gadsden could be considered rape. They had been dating for a year but had not yet had sexual intercourse. One Saturday night, they were spending time together at her mother’s house, and she became extremely intoxicated. she then launched the encounter, and she apparently responded in kind. However, she has since realized that she is not in any position to give her consent. When she asked him if he had been abused at the time, he allegedly said, “I mean, oh, yeah.” Later, Gadsden offered a different opinion on the matter. Jessica said that the conversation she and Charlemagne were having at the time included a culture of rape, and she also felt that it was okay to have sex with him despite his intoxication. According to him, this is not part of rape but part of rape culture. He also told her that he should not use the word “rape,” as he also hesitated to answer her.

Jessica Gadsden Family

Along with Jessica Gadsden, her husband Charlamagne does not share much about her children. So far, the married couple has just revealed that they have two children and do not want to bring their children to light. In an interview, Charlamagne’s wife, Gadsden, explained that she does not want to take her family and children to any social pages, such as Facebook or Twitter. To ignore the media and predators’ attention, Jessica Gadsden has deleted all social pages, including Twitter and Instagram. Therefore, it is difficult to know the names and pictures of her children.

Marriage/Affairs Of Kelly Rebecca Nichols

Gadsden is happily married to her high school boyfriend Larry McElwee, alias, Charlamagne. They tied the knot at a wedding ceremony in September 2014, and thanks to their four-year-old daughter who forced them to marry. Previously, the couple began dating in the late 1990s and had been in a direct relationship for sixteen years. Now, the couple has been blessed with two children. Daughters, Jessica Gadsden first welcomed his daughter and second daughter in 2017. However, they prefer to keep their children out of the light. In addition, the couple is proud parents of their two beautiful daughters. The couple is having their best days with rumors of affairs. Similarly, Charlamagne once said that her oldest daughter had agreed to marry her.

Personal Life

After meeting each other in high school, Jessica Gadsden and Charlamagne began a relationship that lasted for the better part of their lives. In addition, Charlamagne, a South Carolina native, grew up in Manx Corner, a town and county seat in Berkeley County. Born on June 29, 1978, he is about three and a half years older than Gadsden. He had a childhood. In his youth, he became a drug dealer and was arrested twice for possessing marijuana and cocaine to distribute. His third arrest included witnessing a shooting from the back seat of a car. This time, his father refused to bail him out. After spending 41 days in jail, he reached out to his mother, who eventually paid the bail. Charlamagne decided to change his life after being released, Charlamagne started attending night school and was hired as a radio intern. In the years to come, he has gradually established himself as a famous radio personality and is currently co-host of WPR-FM’s The Breakfast Club with DJ Jealousy and Angela Yee. Are serving with She is also active on television as the narrator of the BET show, ‘Inside the Label’. Charlamagne authored two books, ‘Black Privilege: Opportunities Come to the People Who Create It’ (2017) and ‘An Extermination: Anxiety Tricks Over Me’ (2018).Jessica Gadsden and Charlamagne have spent decades fighting for living together. In an interview, Charlamagne revealed that they had issues with both Gadsden and other people before their marriage. However, since then, they have been loyal to each other. The couple tied the knot on September 6, 2014. They have two daughters together. As Gadsden and her husband decide to keep them out of the circle of light, there is not much information about either of them.

Did You Know!

Frequently Ask Questions about Kelly Rebecca Nichols:

Jessica Gadsden is famous for?

Jessica Gadsden is famous as a Family Member American Women and also famous as a wife of

Is any affair of Jessica Gadsden?

Gadsden is happily married to her high school boyfriend Larry McElwee, alias, Charlamagne. They tied the knot at a wedding ceremony in September 2014.

What was Jessica Gadsden famous activities?

She has worked in numerous athletic clubs and gyms, including the New York Blood Services, the East Coast Athletic Club, and the Core Fire Pilates. Later, she established her own gym and began working as a personal trainer and instructor.

Did Jessica Gadsden get any child during her married life?

Kelly Nichols having two beautiful daughters.

Jessica Gadsden Social Media

No Official Social Media Account is Declared by Jessica Gadsden So Far!

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Frederick Douglass Wiki, Biography, Age, Career, Contact & Information

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Famous 19th century writer and speaker Frederick Douglas was a major human rights leader in the anti-slavery movement and the first African American citizen to hold a high position in the US government.

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Frederick Douglass Biography Wiki, Biography, Age, Career, Contact & Information Wiki, Biography, Family & Information
Wiki & Brief Information on Frederick Douglass Biography Wiki, Biography, Age, Career, Contact & Information
Wiki, age, family, relationship
Career
Physical statistics & & more
Favorite points.

Contact details
Frederick Douglass Biography Wiki, Biography, Age, Career, Contact & Biography Information.

Wiki, age, family, relationship

Surname Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey
Nickname Frederick Douglas
father _
mother Harriet Bailey
brothers and sisters Two sisters and one brother
Family members _
birth date 1818
place of birth Washington
horoscope _
nationality American
religion United Methodist Church
Family status Married
man Anna Murray, Helen Pitts
children Rosetta Douglass, Lewis Henry Douglass, Frederick Jr.,
Charles Remond Douglass and Annie
Affair with _
divorce no

Career

job Journalist, diplomat, writer, businessman, editor,
publisher, suffragist, abolitionist, speaker
Active year _
Net worth $ 1 million – $ 5 million (approximate)
Assets / properties _
Lessons & teaching _

Physical statistics & & more

height 6 feet
weight 200 pounds
Eye color Brown
hair colour Black
Complexion Black
Ethnic Origin Panel van / passenger
Tattoo (s) no

Favorite points

favorite Food
favourite song
Favorite actor
Favorite perfume
Favorite actress
favorite singer
favourite movie
favourite sport
Favorite brand (s)

Contact details

Facebook
Twitter
Youtube
Website

 

Frederick Douglass Biography Wiki, Biography, Age, Career, Contact & Biography Information


Who Was Frederick Douglass?

Abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass was born into slavery sometime 1818 in Talbot County, Maryland. He became one of the most famous intellectuals of his day, advising presidents and lecturing to thousands on a variety of topics including women’s rights and Irish household rule.

Douglass’s writings include several autobiographies eloquently describing his experiences in slavery and his life after the Civil War, including the well-known work Tale of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave . He died on February 20, 1895. ADVERTISEMENT Thank you for watching! Visit the website
“Tale of Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave” He also subscribed to William Lloyd Garrison’s weekly diary The Liberator .

At Garrison’s urging, Douglass wrote and published his first autobiography, Tale of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave The book was a bestseller in the United States and has been translated into several European languages. ADVERTISEMENT Thank you for watching! Visit the ADVERTISING website Thank you for watching! Visit the website

Though Douglass’s work earned many fans, some critics expressed doubts that a former slave without formal training could have produced such elegant prose.

Other books by Frederick Douglass

Douglass published three versions of his autobiography during his lifetime, revising and expanding his work each time. My Servitude and Freedom was published in 1855. In 1881, Douglass published the Life and Times of Frederick Douglass , which he revised in 1892.

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When was Frederick Douglass born?

Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery in Talbot County, Maryland, around 1818. The exact year and date of his birth is unknown, although later in life he decided to celebrate it on February 14th.

family

Douglass initially lived with his maternal grandmother, Betty Bailey. At a young age, Douglass was chosen to live in the home of the plantation owners, one of whom may have been his father.

His mother, who was present at times in his life, died when he was around 10 years old.

Learn to read and write

Despite a ban on teaching slaves to read and write, the Baltimore slave owner’s wife Hugh Auld taught Sophia Frederick Douglass the alphabet when he was about 12 years old. When Auld forbade his wife to offer more classes, Douglass continued to learn from white children and others in the neighborhood.

It was through reading that Douglass’ ideological opposition to slavery took shape. He read newspapers eagerly, searching for political writing and literature as much as possible. In later years, Douglass did well The Colombian Orator for clarifying and defining his views on human rights.

Douglass shared his newfound knowledge with other enslaved people. He was rented to William Freeland and taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly church service.

The interest was so great that more than 40 slaves attended classes each week. Although Freeland did not interfere with the class, other local slaveholders were less understanding. Armed with clubs and stones, they dispersed the community permanently.

When Douglass switched between the Aulds, he later had to work for Edward Covey, who had a reputation for being a “slave breaker”. Covey’s constant abuse almost broke 16-year-old Douglass mentally. Eventually, however, Douglass struggled in a scene that was powerfully portrayed in his first autobiography.

After losing a physical confrontation with Douglass, Covey never hit him again. Douglass tried twice to escape slavery before he succeeded.

Frederick Douglass: Wife and Children

Frederick Douglass married Anna Murray, a free black woman, on September 15, 1838. Douglass had fallen in love with Murray, who was helping him on his last attempt to escape slavery in Baltimore.

On September 3, 1838, Douglass shift via train to Havre de Grace, Maryland. Murray had given him some of her savings and a sailor’s uniform. He was wearing identification papers that he had received from a free black seaman. Douglass made his way to abolitionist David Ruggles’ safe home in New York in less than 24 hours.

When he arrived, Douglass sent Murray to New York to meet him where they married and took the name Johnson to hide Douglass’ identity. Anna and Frederick then settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts, where there was a thriving free black community. There they took Douglass as their married name.

Frederick and Anna Douglass had five children together: Rosetta, Lewis Henry, Frederick Jr., Charles Redmond, and Annie, who died at the age of 10. Charles and Rosetta helped their father produce his newspaper, The North Star . Anna remained a loyal supporter of Friedrich’s public work, despite the marital conflict caused by his relationships with several other women.

After Anna’s death, Douglass married Helen Pitts, a white feminist from Honeoye, New York. Pitts was the daughter of Gideon Pitts Jr., an abolitionist colleague. A graduate of Mount Holyoke College, Pitts worked on a radical feminist publication and shared many of Douglass’ moral principles.

Their marriage caused considerable controversy as Pitts was white and nearly 20 years younger than Douglass. Douglass’ children were particularly unhappy with the relationship. Douglass and Pitts remained married 11 years later until his death.

Abolitionist

After settling in New Bedford as a free man with his wife Anna in 1838, Frederick Douglass was eventually asked to tell his story at abolitionist meetings, and he became a regular lecturer on slavery.

Impressed by Douglass’ strength and rhetorical skills, founder of The Liberator William Lloyd Garrison wrote about him in his newspaper. A few days after the story was published, Douglass gave his first speech at the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society’s annual meeting in Nantucket.

Crowds have not always been hospitable to Douglass. While attending a Midwestern lecture tour in 1843, Douglass was followed and beaten by an angry mob before being rescued by a local Quaker family.

After the publication of his first autobiography in 1845, Douglass traveled overseas to avoid the reconquest. He sailed for Liverpool on August 16, 1845, and finally came to Ireland at the start of the famine. He stayed in Ireland and Britain for two years, speaking to large crowds about the evils of slavery.

During this time, Douglass’s British supporters raised money to gain his legal liberty. In 1847 the famous writer and orator returned to the United States as a free man.

North Star

Upon his return, Douglass produced several abolitionist newspapers: The North Star , Frederick Douglass Weekly , Frederick Douglass ‘Paper , Douglass’ Monthly, and New National Era . The North Star’s motto was “Right has no gender – Truth has no color – God is the Father of us all and we are all brothers.”

READ ARTICLE: “Frederick Douglass at 200: Bringing the Thunder” on History.com

Women’s rights

In addition to the abolition, Douglass became an outspoken advocate of women’s rights. In 1848 he was the only African American to attend the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. Elizabeth Cady Stanton called on the congregation to pass a resolution setting out the goal of women’s suffrage. Many participants rejected the idea.

Douglass stood up and spoke out eloquently, arguing that he could not accept the right to vote as a black man unless women could also claim that right. The decision was made. However, Douglass later came into conflict with women’s rights activists for supporting the Fifteenth Amendment, which banned racial discrimination while respecting gender restrictions.

Civil War and Reconstruction

At the time of the Civil War, Douglass was one of the most famous black men in the country. He used his status to influence the role of African Americans in the war and their status in the country. In 1863, Douglass spoke with President Abraham Lincoln about the treatment of black soldiers and later with President Andrew Johnson on the issue of black suffrage.

President Lincoln’s Declaration of Emancipation, which went into effect January 1, 1863, declared the freedom of all slaves in Confederate territory. Despite this victory, Douglass supported John C. Frémont in the 1864 election over Lincoln, citing his disappointment that Lincoln did not publicly advocate the right to vote for black freedmen.

Slavery was later outlawed throughout the United States with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Douglass was appointed to various political positions after the war. He was President of Freedman’s Savings Bank and Chargé d’affaires of the Dominican Republic.

After two years, he resigned from his embassy over objections to the specifics of US government policy. He was later appointed Minister and Consul General of the Republic of Haiti, an office he held between 1889 and 1891.

In 1877, Douglass visited one of its previous owners, Thomas Auld. Douglass had met with Auld’s daughter, Amanda Auld Sears, years ago. The visit had a personal meaning for Douglass, although some criticized him for the reconciliation.

Vice presidential candidate

Douglass was the first African American to be named Vice President of the United States in 1872 as Victoria Woodhull’s run mate for the Equal Rights Party ticket.

Douglass was nominated without his knowledge or consent and has never launched a campaign. Still, his nomination was the first time an African American had appeared in a presidential election.

When did Frederick Douglass die?

Frederick Douglass died of a massive heart attack or stroke on February 20, 1895, shortly after returning from a National Women’s Council meeting in Washington, DC. He was buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York.

 

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Top black scholars and intellectuals who influenced sociology

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Too much, for example, the contributions of black sociologists and intellectuals who have influenced the development of the field are ignored and excluded from the standard narratives of the theory of sociology. In honor of the satisfy.

Sojourner Truth, 1797–1883
Anna Julia Cooper, 1858-1964
SPIDERWEB. DuBois, 1868-1963
Charles S. Johnson, 1893-1956
E. Franklin Frazier, 1894-1962
Oliver Cromwell Cox, 1901-1974
CLR James, 1901–1989
St. Clair Drake, 1911–1990
James Baldwin, 1924-1987
Frantz Fanon, 1925-1961
Audre Lorde, 1934–1992

Too often, the contributions of black sociologists and intellectuals who have influenced the development of the field are ignored and excluded from the standard narratives of the history of sociology. In honor of Black History Month, we highlight the contributions of 11 important people who have made valuable and lasting contributions to the camp.

Sojourner Truth, 1797–1883

Sojourner Truth was born into slavery in 1797 in New York as Isabella Baumfree. After her emancipation in 1827, she became an itinerant preacher under her new name, a noted abolitionist and advocate of women’s suffrage. The sign of truth about sociology was left when she gave a now famous speech in 1851 at a conference on women’s rights in Ohio. Entitled for the key question she pursued in this speech, “Am I not a woman?”, Transcription has a part of sociology and feminist studies. It is considered important for these fields because, in it, Truth laid the foundation for the theories of intersectionality that would follow much later. Her question emphasizes that she is not considered a woman due to her race. All ‘ era it was an identity reserved exclusively for those with white skin. Following this speech, she continued to work as an abolitionist and, later, a black rights advocate.

The truth died in 1883 in Battle Creek, Michigan, but his legacy lives on. In 2009, she became the first black woman to have a bust of her likeness installed in the US capital, and in 2014 she was placed on the Smithsonian Institution’s “100 Most Significant Americans” list.

Anna Julia Cooper, 1858-1964

Anna Julia Cooper was a writer, educator, and public speaker who lived from 1858 to 1964. Born into slavery in Raleigh, North Carolina, she was the fourth African American woman to earn a doctorate – a Ph.D. in history at the University of Paris-Sorbonne in 1924. Cooper is most important scholars in US history, as his work is a staple of early American sociology and is often taught in sociology, women’s studies and breed courses. His first and only published work, Una voce dal sud, is considered to be one of the earliest conceived black feminist joints in the United States. In this work, Cooper has focused on education for black girls and women as central to the advancement of blacks in the post-slavery era. It also critically addressed the realities of racism and economic inequality faced by blacks. Her collected works, including her book, essays, speeches and letters, are available in a volume entitled The Voice of Anna Julia Cooper .

Cooper’s work and contributions were commemorated with a United States postage stamp in 2009. Wake Forest University is home to the Anna Julia Cooper Center on Gender, Race, and Politics in the South, which focuses on advancing justice through scholarships intersectional. The Center is run by Dr. Melissa Harris-Perry, a political scientist and public intellectual.

SPIDERWEB. DuBois, 1868-1963

SPIDERWEB. DuBois, along with Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber and Harriet Martineau, is considered one of the founding thinkers of modern sociology. Born in Massachusetts in 1868, DuBois would become the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University in sociology. He worked as a professor at Wilberforce University, as a researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, and later as a professor at the University of Atlanta. He was NAACP founding member.

DuBois’s most important sociological contributions include:

The Philadelphia Negro (1896), an in-depth study of the life of African Americans based on in-person interviews and census data, which illustrated how social structure shapes the lives of individuals and communities.
The souls of the black people (1903), a treatise on what it means to be black in the United States and a demand for equal rights, in which DuBois endowed sociology with the profoundly important concept of “double consciousness”.
Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 (1935), a richly researched historical account and sociological analysis of the role of race and racism in the division of workers in the Reconstruction South, who might otherwise have bonded as a common class. DuBois shows how the divisions between black and white southerners set the stage for the passing of Jim Crow’s laws and the creation of a black underclass without rights.
Later in his life, DuBois was investigated by the FBI on charges of socialism due to his work with the Peace Information Center and his opposition to the use of nuclear weapons. He later moved to Ghana in 1961, renounced his American citizenship and died there in 1963.

Today, DuBois’s work is taught in basic and advanced level sociology classes, and is still widely cited on contemporary scholarship. His life’s work served as the inspiration for the creation of Anime , a critical journal of black politics, culture and society. Each year the American Sociological Association awards an award for a career of distinguished scholarships in his honor.

Charles S. Johnson, 1893-1956

Charles Spurgeon Johnson, 1893-1956, was an American sociologist and the first black president of Fisk University, a historically black college. Born in Virginia, he holds a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago, where he studied among the sociologists of the Chicago School. While in Chicago he worked as a researcher for the Urban League and played a leading role in the study and discussion of race relations in the city, published as The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Riot and Race Relations. In his subsequent career, Johnson focused his scholarship on a critical study of how legal, economic and social forces work together to produce structural racial oppression. His notable works include The Negro in American Civilization (1930), Shadow of the Plantation (1934) and Growing Up in the Black Belt (1940), among others.

Today, Johnson is remembered as a leading early scholar of race and racism who helped establish a critical sociological focus on these forces and processes. Each year, the American Sociological Association awards an award to a sociologist whose work has made a significant contribution to the struggle for social justice and human rights for oppressed populations, named after Johnson, along with E. Franklin Frazier and Oliver Cromwell Cox. His life and work are described in a biography titled Charles S. Johnson: Leadership Beyond the time of the Age of Jim Crow.

E. Franklin Frazier, 1894-1962

E. Franklin Frazier was an American sociologist born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1894. He attended Howard University, then went on to graduate work at Clark University and eventually earned a PhD. in sociology from the University of Chicago, along with Charles S. Johnson and Oliver Cromwell Cox. Before arriving in Chicago he was forced to leave Atlanta, where he taught sociology at Morehouse College, after an angry white mob threatened him following the publication of his article, “The Pathology of Race Prejudice.” After his PhD he Join at Fisk University, then Howard University until his death in 1962.

Frazier is known for works including:

The Negro Family in the United States (1939), an examination of the social forces that shaped the development of black families from slavery onwards, which won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award in 1940.
Black Bourgeoisie (1957), who critically studied the subdued values ​​adopted by middle-class blacks in the United States, among others.
Frazier contributed to the drafting of the postwar UNESCO declaration The Question of Race , a response to the role played by that race in the Holocaust.
Like WEB DuBois, Frazier was vilified as a traitor by the United States government for his work with the Council on African Affairs and his activism for black civil rights.

Oliver Cromwell Cox, 1901-1974

Oliver Cromwell Cox was born in the city of Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain in 1901 and emigrated to the United States in 1919. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Northwestern University before pursuing a masters degree in economics and a PhD. in sociology from the University of Chicago. Like Johnson and Frazier, Cox was also a part of the Chicago School of sociology. However, he and Frazier had very different views on racism and race relations. Inspired by Marxism, the hallmark of his thinking and work was the idea that racism developed within the system of capitalism, and is primarily motivated by the drive to economically exploit people of color. His most notable work is published in 1948 Caste, Class and Race. It contained important critiques of how both Robert Park (his teacher) and Gunnar Myrdal framed and analyzed race relations and racism. Cox’s contributions have been important in orienting sociology towards structural ways of seeing, studying and analyzing racism in the United States.

From the mid-century onwards he taught at Lincoln University in Missouri, and later at Wayne State University, until his death in 1974. Oliver C. Cox’s Mind offers a biography and in-depth discussion of Cox’s intellectual approach to race and to racism and its body of work.

CLR James, 1901–1989

Cyril Lionel Robert James was born in Trinidad and Tobago in 1901 under British colonization in Tunapuna. James was a fierce and formidable critic and activist against colonialism and fascism. He was also a fierce advocate of socialism as a way out of the inequities built into government through capitalism and authoritarianism. He is well known among social scientists for his contributions to postcolonial scholarship and for writing on subordinate subjects.

James moved to England in 1932, where he devoted himself to Trotskyist politics, and launched an active career of socialist activism, writing pamphlets, essays and dramaturgy. She experienced a bit of a nomadic style during her adult life, spending time in Mexico with Trotsky, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in 1939; he then lived in the United States, England and his homeland of Trinidad and Tobago, before returning to England, where he lived until his death in 1989.

James’s contributions to social theory come from his non-fiction works, The Black Jacobins (1938), a history of the Haitian revolution, which was a successful overthrow of the French colonial dictatorship by slave blacks (the most successful uprising of its kind in history); and Notes on the dialectic: Hegel, Marx and Lenin (1948). His collected work and interviews are featured on a website titled The CLR James Legacy Project.

St. Clair Drake, 1911–1990

John Gibbs St. Clair Drake, known simply as St. Clair Drake, was an American urban sociologist and anthropologist whose scholarship and activism focused on mid-20th century racism and racial tensions. Born in Virginia in 1911, he start studied biology at the Hampton Institute, then completed a Ph.D. in anthropology at the University of Chicago. Drake then became one of the first black professors at Roosevelt University. After working there for 23 years, he leave to found the African and African American Studies program at Stanford University.

Drake was a black civil rights activist and helped establish other black curricula nationwide. He was active as a member and advocate of the Pan-African movement, with a longstanding interest in the global African diaspora, and served as the head of the sociology department from 1958 to 1961 at the University of Ghana.

Drake’s most important and influential works include Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (1945), a study on poverty, racial segregation and racism in Chicago, written in collaboration with African American sociologist Horace R. Cayton , Jr., and considered one of the best urban sociology jobs ever conducted in the United States; and Black People Here and There , in two volumes (1987, 1990), which collects a huge amount of research showing that prejudice against blacks began during the Hellenistic period in Greece, between 323 and 31 BC. .

Drake received the Dubois-Johnson-Frazier Award from the American Sociological Association in 1973 (now the Cox-Johnson-Frazier Award), and the Bronislaw Malinowski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology in 1990. He died in Palo Alto, California in 1990, but his legacy lives on in a research center named after him at Roosevelt University and in the St. Clair Drake lectures held by Stanford. In addition, the New York Public Library houses a digital archive of his work.

James Baldwin, 1924-1987

James Baldwin was a prolific American writer, social critic and anti-racism and civil rights activist. He was born in 1924 in Harlem, New York and grew up there, before moving to Paris, France, in 1948. Although he would return to the United States to speak out and fight for the civil rights of blacks as a leader of the movement, he spent il most of his adult life in Saint-Paul de Vence, in the Provence region of southern France, where he died in 1987.

Baldwin moved to France to escape the racist ideology and experiences that shaped his life in the United States, after which his writing career flourished. Baldwin understood the connection between capitalism and racism, and as such he was an advocate of socialism. He has written plays, essays, novels, poems and non-fiction books, all considered deeply valuable for their intellectual contributions to the theorization and critique of racism, sexuality and inequality. His most important works include Next Time the Fire (1963); No Name on the Street (1972); The Devil Finds Work (1976); and Notes of a native child.

Frantz Fanon, 1925-1961

Frantz Omar Fanon, born in Martinique in 1925 (then a French colony), was a doctor and psychiatrist, as well as a philosopher, revolutionary and writer. His medical practice focused on the psychopathology of colonization and much of his social science relevant writings dealt with the consequences of decolonization around the world. Fanon’s work is considered profoundly important to postcolonial theory and studies, critical theory and contemporary Marxism. As an activist, Fanon was involved in the war for Algeria’s independence from France and his writings have served as inspiration for populist and postcolonial movements around the world. As a student in Martinique, Fanon studied with the writer Aimé Césaire. He left Martinique during World War II as it was occupied by the oppressive French naval forces of Vichy and joined the Free French forces in Dominica, after which he traveled to Europe and fought with Allied forces. He returned briefly to Martinique after the war and earned a degree, but then returned to France to study medicine, psychiatry and philosophy.

Fanon’s first book, Black Skin, White Masks (1952), was published while living in France after earning his medical degree, and is considered an important work for the way it processes the psychological damage done to blacks by colonization. , including how colonization instills feelings of inadequacy and dependence. His most famous book The Miserables of the Earth(1961), dictated while he was dying of leukemia, is a controversial treatise in which he argues that, because they are not seen by the oppressor as human beings, colonized people are not limited by the rules that apply to humanity, and therefore have the right to use violence while fighting for independence. Although some read him as an advocate of violence, it is actually more accurate to describe this work as a critique of the tactics of non-violence. Fanon died in 1961 in Bethesda, Maryland.

Audre Lorde, 1934–1992

Audre Lorde, was born in New York City to Caribbean immigrants in 1934. She is a noted feminist, poet, and civil rights activist. Lorde attended Hunter College High School and completed her undergraduate degree in 1959, and subsequently a Master of Library Science from Columbia University. Later, Lorde became a resident writer at Tougaloo College in Mississippi and, subsequently, was an activist for the Afro-German movement in Berlin from 1984 to 1992.

During her adult life Lorde married Edward Rollins, birth two children, but later divorced and embraced her lesbian sexuality. Her experiences as a black lesbian mother were central to her writing and fueled her theoretical discussions of the intersecting nature of race, class, gender, sexuality, and motherhood. Lorde used her experiences and perspective to elaborate important critiques of the whiteness, nature of the middle class and the heteronormativity of feminism in the mid-twentieth century. He theorized that these aspects of feminism actually served to secure the oppression of black women in the United States, and expressed this view in a speech often given at a conference entitled “The master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house.”

All of Lorde’s work is considered of value to social theory in general, but her most important works in this regard include Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power (1981), in which she frames the erotic as a power of source. , joy and emotion for women, once it is no longer suppressed by the dominant ideology of society; and Sister Strangers: Essays and Discourses (1984), a collection of works on the many forms of oppression Lorde experienced in her life and the importance of embracing and learning from difference at the community level. Her book, The Cancer Journals, which chronicled her battle with disease and the intersection of disease and black womanhood, won the 1981 Gay Caucus Book of the Year Award.

Lorde was the New York State Graduate Poet from 1991 to 1992; received the Bill Whitehead Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992; and in 2001, Publishing Triangle created the Audre Lorde Award in honor of lesbian poetry. He died in 1992 in St. Croix.

 

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